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Transgenic rice constitutively overexpressing Os CPK7 or Os CPK13 showed enhanced tolerance to cold, salt, and drought stress (Saijo et al., 2000; Komatsu et al., 2007). Calcineurin-B-like protein CBL9 interacts with target kinase CIPK3 in the regulation of ABA response in seed germination. In tobacco, CPK-silenced plants displayed a reduced and delayed hypersensitive response to the fungal Avr9 elicitor (Romeis et al., 2001).

A total of 49 Br CPKs, 14 Br CRKs, 3 Br PPCKs, 5 Br PEPRKs, and 56 Br Sn RKs were identified in B. All Br CDPK-Sn RK proteins had highly conserved kinase domains. doi: 10.1105/tpc.002899 Pub Med Abstract | Cross Ref Full Text | Google Scholar Schmid, M., Davison, T.

By statistical analysis of the number of CDPK-Sn RK genes in each species, we found that the expansion of the CDPK-Sn RK gene family started from angiosperms.

Different calcium sensors recognize specific calcium signatures and transduce them into downstream effects, including altered protein phosphorylation and gene expression patterns (Sanders et al., 1999; Rudd and Franklin-Tong, 2001). doi: 10.1007/s00438-007-0267-4 Pub Med Abstract | Cross Ref Full Text | Google Scholar Rensing, S.

In eukaryotes, calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) and most sucrose non-fermenting-1-related kinases (Sn RKs) are involved in regulating and decoding Ca signals (Assmann and Wang, 2001; Evans et al., 2001; Harmon et al., 2001; Cheng et al., 2002; Fasano et al., 2002; Hrabak et al., 2003; Cho et al., 2009; Kulik et al., 2011).

Meanwhile, a variety of internal substances also affect plants growth. doi: 10.1034/j.1399-3054.2002.1150303.x Pub Med Abstract | Cross Ref Full Text | Google Scholar Romeis, T., Ludwig, A.

These external and internal signals compose a complex regulatory network that allows plants to develop in balance. CCa MKs (calcium- and calmodulin-dependent protein kinases) bind both calcium ions and the calcium/calmodulin complex, whereas Ca MKs (calmodulin-dependent protein kinases) bind the calcium/calmodulin complex but not calcium (Hrabak et al., 2003). St CDPK1 is expressed in potato stolon tips and is induced by high sucrose concentration. In addition, there are the classical SNF1-type kinases from yeast; Halford and Hardie (1998) proposed the name SNF1-related kinase (Sn RK) for this group and recognized three subgroups: Sn RK1, Sn RK2, and Sn RK3 (Harmon et al., 2001). The CDPK-Sn RK (calcium-dependent protein kinase/Snf1-related protein kinase) gene superfamily plays important roles in signaling pathways for disease resistance and various stress responses, as indicated by emerging evidence. In this study, we constructed comparative analyses of gene structure, retention, expansion, whole-genome duplication (WGD) and expression patterns of CDPK-Sn RK genes in Brassica rapa and their evolution in plants. The plant CPKs characterized to date play substantive roles in diverse physiological processes. Reorientation of seedlings in the earth's gravitational field induces cytosolic calcium transients.